Package of Essential Non-communicable Diseases (PEN)
Non-communicable diseases are a major public health problem in Nepal accounting for around 60% of the total annual deaths in 2014 (WHO). The Package of Essential Non-communicable Diseases (PEN) has been introduced to screen, diagnose, treat and refer Cardio Vascular Diseases, COPD, cancer, diabetes, and mental health at health posts, primary health care centres and district hospitalhospitals for early detection and management of chronic diseases within the community.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the leading cause of death globally and also in the South East Asia region due to many social determinants like unhealthy lifestyles, globalization, trade and marketing, demographic and economic transitions. The change in the status of these determinants has affected behavioral and metabolic risk factors of the general population to the NCDs.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), Chronic non-infectious respiratory diseases (like COPD), Cancers and Diabetes Mellitus are referred as essential non-communicable disease with well-established common modifiable risk factors. Oral health, Mental Health and Road traffic Injuries are other NCDs in Nepal that has been growing at an alarming rate posing as major threats to public health.
Behaviours like tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, intake of high proportion of unhealthy diet like - consuming less fruits and vegetables, high salt and trans-fat consumption, and physical inactivity are the common modifiable risk factors of NCDs while overweight and obesity, raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose and abnormal blood lipids are the metabolic risk factors. Such behaviours are determined by social structures, economic disparities, and market forces that entice the people into buying and consuming unhealthy products such as ultra-processed foods and drinks, among other examples. Indoor air pollution is another important modifiable behavioral risk factor for the region and the country.
Related Services available at health facilities:
|Health Facilities||Services||Basic Diagnostics|
|Health Post||Detect hypertension, diabetes, assess CVD risks, counseling, referral, follow up of low risk patients, refill drugs, health promotion||Blood pressure measurement device, Glucometer, Urine protein test strips, Urine ketone test strips, Stethoscope, Measurement tape, Digital weighing scale, Stadiometer, CVD risk charts|
|Primary Health Care Centers||Confirm diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, manage, follow up high risk patients, refer complicated cases to district hospital||Blood pressure measurement device, Glucometer, Cardio check, Urine protein test strips, Urine ketone test strips, Stethoscope, CVD risk charts, Measurement tape, Digital weighing scale, Stadiometer|